Lieutenant Commander Robert Cole Basford
MIEAust CPEng RAN (Retd)

🌑About // 🌑CV
🔴Research Home
🌑Skills & Qualifications
🌑 Work Experience
🔴2020-present OTSO
2013-2020 Germany
1997-2013 Finland
1990-1997 ADF.Navy
1978-1990 ADF.Army

Royal Military College of Australia

Hydrogen Energy Research

Defence Force Service Medal Australian Defence Medal

Reshoring renewables manufacturing

Hydrogen Energy Research
Scientific & Applied Engineering References

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Electrolysis CoP 1.1. 24 Nov 2023, Nature, Corrosion-resistant cobalt phosphide electrocatalysts for salinity tolerance hydrogen evolution, "Herein, we found cobalt phosphide (CoP) can repel chloride ions while attracting H2O molecules to form a thin water layer on the catalyst surface based on molecular dynamics simulation."
h2 PET 2.1. 24 Nov 2023, Nature, Extent of carbon nitride photocharging controls energetics of hydrogen transfer in photochemical cascade processes, "Here benzylamine tetramerization enabled by g-CNs such as mesoporous graphitic carbon nitride (mpg-CN), sodium poly(heptazine imide) (Na-PHI), and visible light, is chosen as a model oxidative-reductive cascade process."
PEM BSM20 3.1. 17 Nov 2023, Nature, High proton conductivity within the ‘Norby gap’ by stabilizing a perovskite with disordered intrinsic oxygen vacancies, "Herein, we report that the cubic perovskite-type BaSc0.8Mo0.2O2.8 stabilized by Mo donor-doing into BaScO2.5 exhibits high proton conductivity within the ‘Norby gap’ (e.g., 0.01 S cm−1 at 320 °C)."

Electrolysis Ru TiO HER 1.2. 23 Nov 2023, Nature, Stabilizing non-iridium active sites by non-stoichiometric oxide for acidic water oxidation at high current density, "Here a one-step method for in situ growth of TiOx nanorods on a Ti foam substrate reducing Ru3+ to small-sized Ru nanoparticles anchored thereon (Ru/TiOx) as robust / efficient binder-free electrode for OER in acidic media."
Electrolysis Pt HER 1.3. 10 Nov 2023, SciOpen, Lattice-distorted Pt wrinkled nanoparticles for highly effective hydrogen electrocatalysis, "This dual effect optimizes the binding strength of crucial H and OH intermediates, leading to a significant reduction in the energy barrier of the reaction bottleneck, commonly known as the Volmer step."
Electrolysis Graphene HER 1.4. 02 Nov 2023, Nature, Enhanced interfacial water dissociation on a hydrated iron porphyrin single-atom catalyst in graphene, "Here we compare the reactivity of two Fe–N4 SAC defects in operando, i.e. including explicit liquid water by means of extensive spin-polarized DFT-MD simulations and employing large periodic unit cells (corresponding to a density of defects."
Electrolysis HER 1.5. 19 Oct 2023, PHYS.ORG New noble-metal-free electrocatalyst decreases the energy required to generate hydrogen gas from water, "This work represents a significant advancement by creating a self-supported electrode that not only enhances the electrocatalytic activity, but also offers a cost-effective and sustainable solution for hydrogen generation."
Electrolysis HER MnO 1.6. 13 Oct 2023, Nature Unraveling and leveraging in situ surface amorphization for enhanced hydrogen evolution reaction in alkaline media, "We use surface reconstruction that occurs during alkaline HER process to stabilize dopants (Ru) in the in situ formed amorphous layer, enhancing adsorption ability for intermediates & increasing the number of active sites."
Electrolysis HER MnO 1.7. 04 Oct 2023, ACS Cobalt Ferrite Surface-Modified Carbon Nanotube Fibers as an Efficient and Flexible Electrode for Overall Electrochemical Water Splitting Reactions, "Here successfully fabricated cobalt-based ferrite nanoparticles over the surface of carbon nanotube fiber utilized as flexible anode materials for the OER and overall electrochemical water splitting reactions."
Electrolysis HER MnO 1.8. 25 Sep 2023, ACS A Highly Active and Durable Hierarchical Electrocatalyst for Large-Current-Density Water Splitting, "The optimal MnO-CoP/NF electrode exhibits remarkable bifunctional electrocatalytic performance with overpotentials of 259.5 mV for hydrogen evolution at a large current density of 1000 mA cm–2."
Electrolysis HER Atomic Ru 1.9. 19 Sep 2023, ACS Synthesis of High Entropy and Entropy-Stabilized Metal Sulfides and Their Evaluation as Hydrogen Evolution Electrocatalysts, "The entropy-stabilized (CuAgZnCoMnInGa)S material was demonstrated to be an excellent electrocatalyst for HER when combined with conducting carbon black, achieving a low onset overpotential."
Electrolysis HER Atomic Ru 1.10. 15 Sep 2023, PHYS.ORG Atomic Ru coordinated by channel ammonia in V-doped tungsten bronze for highly efficient hydrogen-evolution reaction, "The unique integration of atomic Ru can not only promote the tight interaction between Ru atoms and V-NHWO, but also enhance Ru utilization. When applied as the electrocatalyst for HER, it exhibits remarkable HER performance."
Electrolysis HER MoS 1.11. 13 Sep 2023, Nature Highly defective graphene quantum dots-doped 1T/2H-MoS2 as an efficient composite catalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction, "Here 1T/2H-MoS2/HDGQDs catalyst exhibits excellent HER electrocatalytic performance & provides a unique new strategy for the preparation of high-performance water electrolysis catalysts."
Electrolysis HER Ir 1.12. 05 Sep 2023, Nature Efficient and sustainable water electrolysis achieved by excess electron reservoir enabling charge replenishment to catalysts, "Here we introduce a unique support modification strategy, namely, an excess electron reservoir, which serves as an electron-donating layer, formed on a metal oxide support to preserve Ir states via charge replenishment."
Electrolysis Solid Oxide HER Fe2O3-Hematite 1.13. 04 Sep 2023, Nature Turing structuring with multiple nanotwins to engineer efficient and stable catalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction, "Here we report a Turing structuring strategy to activate and stabilize superthin metal nanosheets by incorporating high-density nanotwins, yields intrinsically stable nanotwin network and straining effects."
Electrolysis Solid Oxide HER Fe2O3-Hematite 1.14. 02 Sep 2023, ScienceDirect Schottky switch derived by metallic W5N4 | catalyst junction: Switch-on to enhance catalytic activity and durability in water splitting reaction, "The Ni-W5N4|NiFeOOH forms a rectifying Schottky junction to accelerate electron-flow across the junction; this results in excellent OER activity."
Electrolysis Solid Oxide HER Fe2O3-Hematite 1.15. 24 Aug 2023, MDPI Stability of the TiO2 Nanuclusters Supported on Fe2O3-Hematite for Application in Electrocatalytic Water Splitting—An Insight from DFT Simulations, "Here we unravel the interactions between the TiO2 nanoclusters and the hematite surface and these interactions are responsible for the stability of the nanoclusters."
Electrolysis Solid Oxide HER 1.16. 22 Aug 2023, ACS Interrogation of the Interfacial Energetics at a Tantalum Nitride/Electrolyte Heterojunction during Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting by Operando Ambient Pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, "Investigation of the interfacial phenomena occurring during the contact of photoelectrodes based on Ta3N5 by operando AP-XPS."
Electrolysis Solid Oxide HER 1.17. 21 Aug 2023, Nature Enhancing the Faradaic efficiency of solid oxide electrolysis cells: progress and perspective, "Here we focus on various operating and materials factors affecting the faradaic efficiency of SOECs, the recent advances in the computational materials science aimed to model various SOEC intrinsic processes, and the needed future computational developments."
IR HER 1.18. 15 Aug 2023, PYS.ORG Researchers design efficient iridium catalyst for hydrogen generation, "A team of researchers led by Professor Chanho Pak from Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology in Korea, has developed a novel mesoporous tantalum oxide (Ta2O5)-supported iridium nanostructure catalyst via a modified formic acid reduction method."
H2 OER 1.19. 08 Aug 2023, Nature Comparative study of Co3O4(111), CoFe2O4(111), and Fe3O4(111) thin film electrocatalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction, "Results show a reduction of the Fe concentration by Fe dissolution into the electrolyte during OER, accompanied by an increase of the OER activity and our results reveal the cobalt/iron ratio is an important parameter for OER."
H2 HER 1.20. 05 Aug 2023, Nature Hydrogenation versus hydrogenolysis during alkaline electrochemical valorization of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural over oxide-derived Cu-bimetallics, "We provide evidence for a kinetic competition between the evolution of H2 and the 2-electron hydrogenolysis of 2.5-Bishydroxymethylfuran to 5-Methylfurfurylalcohol and discuss its mechanistic implications."

h2 solar soft material review 2.2. 20 Nov 2023, ACS, Soft Materials for Photoelectrochemical Fuel Production, "Soft photoelectrochemical systems for solar fuels necessitates a multifaceted approach targeting detailed understanding at the molecular level of charge transfer, charge transport and durability to control energy and matter across various spatiotemporal scales."
h2 solar Cu2O review 2.3. 13 Nov 2023, Nature, Hybrid photothermal–photocatalyst sheets for solar-driven overall water splitting coupled to water purification, "This work provides a new concept for developing an off-grid energy production/storage solution and is a first step towards alleviating both energy and water supply challenges."
h2 solar Cu2O review 2.4. 09 Nov 2023, Nature, Improving the photovoltage of Cu2O photocathodes with dual buffer layers, "Photoelectrochemical water splitting can solve the problem of solar energy harvest and storage by converting intermittent solar energy into hydrogen fuel which has received great attention in the past decades."
h2 production review 2.5. 01 Nov 2023, MDPI, A Review on Mathematical Modeling of Different Biological Methods of Hydrogen Production, "A comparative study was performed along with indications for future research and shortcomings of earlier research. This review will be helpful for all researchers working on different methods of hydrogen production."
Photo HER 2.6. 31 Oct 2023, Nature Intriguing type-II g-GeC/AlN bilayer heterostructure for photocatalytic water decomposition and hydrogen production, "These features indicate the superior performance of the GeC/AlN vdW heterostructure as a photocatalyst to generate H2 for designing vdW heterostructure based on GeC/AlN for an efficient photocatalysis scheme."
Photo CdS HER 2.7. 31 Oct 2023, SciOpen Nanoconfinement-induced water molecules and H2 molecules transport behaviors in ball-in-ball structure photocatalysts to improve H2 evolution, "Minimized H2-occupied active sites enable photocatalyst with optimized mass transfer kinetics and localization electron distribution on the CdS surface, leading to superior H2 production performance."
Photo proton HER 2.8. 31 Oct 2023, Nature Gate-controlled suppression of light-driven proton transport through graphene electrodes, "Herein these experiments revealed that solar-simulated illumination can enhance proton permeation through graphene electrodes by an order of magnitude8, a phenomenon that we called the photo-proton effect."
Photoelectric HER 2.9. 28 Oct 2023, Nature Efficient photocatalytic production of hydrogen peroxide using dispersible and photoactive porous polymers, "Herein we encode a photoactive moiety and a highly reversible proton acceptor into the skeleton of a covalent triazine polymer to manipulate its photoactivity and dispersibility, which we term the “in-situ protonation” strategy."
Chitosan-Derived Nitrogen-Doped Carbon HER 2.10. 25 Oct 2023, ACS Chitosan-Derived Nitrogen-Doped Carbon as a Support of Cobalt(II)-Phthalocyanine/Gold Nanoparticles for Photocatalytic Water Splitting, "Nitrogen-doped Carbon is considered a promising support for the photocatalytic H2 generation since protons easily are promoted to H2 after binding to N and chitosan is a valuable source for production."
Photoelectric HER 2.11. 25 Oct 2023, Nature Prolonged hydrogen production by engineered green algae photovoltaic power stations, "In this work, we demonstrate prolonged photosynthetic hydrogen evolution by engineered swimming green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii) without chemical additives or application of external bias."
Photoelectric HER 2.12. 23 Oct 2023, Nature Photoelectric responsive ionic channel for sustainable energy harvesting, "Bifunctional nanofluidic device allows the nanoconfined manipulation of ion diffusion, synergistically controlled by diverse driving forces. This synergy led to an impressive power density of up to 129 W m−2."
MoSe2 HER 2.13. 16 Oct 2023, PHYS.ORG Efficient bi-functional catalyst for methanol-assisted water splitting of hydrogen generation, "The oxophilic MoSe2 component with 2D structures optimized the adsorption of CO* and H* on Pt sites as demonstrated by spectroscopic and theoretical analysis, which resulted in enhanced catalytic ability in methanol-assisted water splitting reaction."
Bio HER 2.14. 13 Oct 2023, MDPI Proton-Conducting Ceramic Membranes for the Production of Hydrogen via Decarbonized Heat: Overview and Prospects, "Here general considerations on proton-conducting ceramic membranes as well as types of proton-conducting ceramic membranes and their applications in membrane reactors and reversible protonic ceramic electrochemical cells are reported."
Bio HER 2.15. 09 Oct 2023, Nature Role of support bio-templating in Ni/Al2O3 catalysts for hydrogen production via dry reforming of methane, "This study investigates the potential of a novel green alumina, prepared by the bio-template method using waste leaves, as suitable supporting material for Ni active sites in the DRM process for the first time."
Photocatalytic HER 2.16. 01 Oct 2023, MDPI Experimental Research on the Production of Hydrogen-Rich Synthesis Gas via the Air-Gasification of Olive Pomace: A Comparison between an Updraft Bubbling Bed and a Downdraft Fixed Bed, "Fixed-bed cracking process has advantages over the fluidized-bed cracking process & this configuration tends to produce higher concentrations of H2."
Photocatalytic HER 2.17. 27 Sep 2023, Nature Solar-driven upgrading of biomass by coupled hydrogenation using in situ (photo)electrochemically generated H2, "In this study, we demonstrate an integrated solar-driven device in which the photoelectrochemical production of hydrogen is coupled to a catalytic hydrogenation reaction."
Photocatalytic HER 2.18. 22 Sep 2023, Nature Automated Construction of a Photocatalysis Dataset for Water-Splitting Applications, "Here, a dataset of 15,755 records that were extracted from 47,357 papers contains water-splitting activity in the presence of certain photocatalysts, along with additional information about the chemical reaction conditions under which this activity was recorded."
Photocatalytic HER CuWO4 2.19. 15 Sep 2023, ACS Exploring the Redox Properties of the Low-Miller Index Surfaces of Copper Tungstate (CuWO4): Evaluating the Impact of the Environmental Conditions on the Water Splitting and Carbon Dioxide Reduction Processes, "CuWO4, (18–20) has been shown to perform better than binary metal oxides in photocatalytic water splitting."
Radiolysis HER 2.20. 11 Sep 2023, MDPI Early and Transient Formation of Highly Acidic pH Spikes in Water Radiolysis under the Combined Effect of High Dose Rate and High Linear Energy Transfer, "In this study, we examine how this transient acidic response evolves under H2O irradiation conditions combining both high-dose-rate and high-LET (i.e., densely ionizing) radiation."

PEM Backdonation 3.2. 09 Nov 2023, Nature, Accurate emulation of steady-state and dynamic performances of PEM fuel cells using simplified models, "4xStudy cases of well-known commercial PEMFCs’ types have been comprehensively discussed via set of simulated electrical characteristics such as the calculated V–I and P–I curves & the polarization losses alternation with drawn currents."
PEM Backdonation 3.3. 21 Oct 2023, ACS, Understanding the Pathway Switch of the Oxygen Reduction Reaction from Single- to Double-/Triple-Atom Catalysts: A Dual Channel for Electron Acceptance–Backdonation, "This work shows a deep understanding of the superior ORR kinetic behavior of DACs/TACs to SACs in available experiments, for future designs."
PEM UNIST 3.4. 20 Oct 2023, ACS, Interface Diffusion and Compatibility of (Ba,La)FeO3−δ Perovskite Electrodes in Contact with Barium Zirconate and Ceria, "Here, we focus on the compatibility with Ba-rich cathode materials since they are most frequently employed in PCFCs. (13,14) Barium ferrites were chosen as prototypical cathode materials."
PEM MOF UNIST 3.5. 22 Sep 2023, Nature, Promoting ordering degree of intermetallic fuel cell catalysts by low-melting-point metal doping, "Research shows the substitution of Co atoms in PtCo with low-melting-point metal atoms can significantly decrease the height of energy barrier for atom diffusion and thus promote the ordering degree."
PEM MOF UNIST 3.6. 11 Sep 2023, PHYS.ORG, New ionic materials boost hydrogen fuel cell efficiency, "Research introduced guest molecules with low acidity—marking a pioneering achievement among intermediaries used for this purpose. A novel methodology increases the number of guest molecules inside MOF pores & achieved improved H2 ion conductivity."
PEM 3-Phase Air R-PSOC 3.7. 01 Sep 2023, ACS, A Synergistic Three-Phase, Triple-Conducting Air Electrode for Reversible Proton-Conducting Solid Oxide Cells, "Here a series of triple-conducting air electrode materials were designed, synthesized, and optimized by rationally doping transition- and rare-earth metal ions into BaHf0.8Y0.2O3−δ, a stable electrolyte material for R-PSOCs."
PEM ionomer 3.8. 29 Aug 2023, Nature, Structure and conductivity of ionomer in PEM fuel cell catalyst layers: a model-based analysis, "A parameter study of the initial ionomer film thickness and the ionomer dispersion parameter revealed that the ionomer morphology should be tweaked towards well-defined films with high coverage of catalyst agglomerates."
MDPI H2 AI 3.9. 14 Aug 2023, MDPI, Prediction of Transient Hydrogen Flow of PEM Electrolyzer Using Artificial Neural Network, "Here we optimally fit models of H2 flow from PEM electrolyzers utilizing artificial neural networks were developed. Such models may establish an agile flow control system for the electrolyzer system to help decrease power consumption & increase efficiency."
UNSW Fuel Cell Analyser 3.10. 11 Aug 2023, UNSW, The future of hydrogen fuel: UNSW researchers develop technique to analyse hydrogen fuel cell stability, "Using 3 novel methods we determined how stable our Pt-free fuel cell is and understood why. This approach can be easily adopted by scientists in other labs to gain quick and accurate insights into the efficiency of fuel cells and catalysts."
Fuel Cell phosphorylated polyvinyl 3.11. 10 Aug 2023, Nature, Polyelectrolyte membranes based on phosphorylated-PVA/cellulose acetate for direct methanol fuel cell applications: synthesis, instrumental characterization, and performance testing, "Herein, a cost-effective PEM membrane based on phosphorylated polyvinyl alcohol-grafted-cellulose acetate was prepared by a solution-casting technique."
Fuel Cell Pt Nanoclusters 3.12. 31 Ju1 2023, Nature, Ionomer-free and recyclable porous-transport electrode for high-performing proton-exchange-membrane water electrolysis, "Here we propose solutions to limited Ir availability and catalyst recycling with ultra-low loaded ionomer-free porous-transport electrode (PTE). The proposed PTE & fabrication eliminate the need for ionomer in the anode,"
Fuel Cell Sodium Borohydride NaBH4 3.13. 15 Ju1 2023, MDPI, Device for Controlled Production of Hydrogen, "When borohydride is dissolved in water at sufficiently low acidity values (pH), hydrogen is produced which can be sent directly to the anode of a fuel cell thus obtaining electricity. Borohydride powder, if stored in the absence of humidity, is stable, non-flammable, and non-explosive."
Fuel Cell Grooved electrodes 3.14. 04 Ju1 2023, TechXplore, Grooved electrodes could improve the performance of proton-exchange membrane fuel cells, "New electrodes, introduced in Nature Energy, have a characteristic grooved conformation that can facilitate more efficient transport of both oxygen and protons in the fuel cells."
Fuel Cell Pt Nanoclusters 3.15. 24 Jun 2023, Nature, Embedding oxophilic rare-earth single atom in platinum nanoclusters for efficient hydrogen electro-oxidation, "Reported is the synthesis of a series of ultrasmall Ln1Pt NCs with the insertion of highly oxophilic La, Ce, Pr, Nd, and Lu single-atom via vapor filling and spatially confined, achieving high HOR catalytic performance in alkaline media."
Fuel Cell Lost Iridium 3.16. 23 May 2023, ACS, In Search of Lost Iridium: Quantification of Anode Catalyst Layer Dissolution in Proton Exchange Membrane Water Electrolyzers, "This new finding implies tracking Ir present in the cathode can be used to estimate anode catalyst stability, thus accelerating catalyst development and operational parameters optimization."
Fuel Cell COF 3.17. 31 Mar 2023, Nature, Green synthesis of olefin-linked covalent organic frameworks for hydrogen fuel cell applications, "Here we anchored the proton carriers, H3PO4, within the pores of NKCOF-10 through pyrazine functionalities to fabricate H3PO4@NKCOF-10, which exhibited ultrahigh proton conductivity and excellent performance as solid electrolyte membranes."
PNAS Graphene H2 3.18. 13 Mar 2023, PNAS, Unexpected catalytic activity of nanorippled graphene, "Defect-free monolayer graphene exhibits a strong activity with respect to splitting molecular H2, which is comparable to that of metallic and other known catalysts for this reaction. We attribute the unexpected catalytic activity to surface corrugations (nanoscale ripples)."
Honda PEM fuel cell 3.19. 06 Mar 2023, Honda, Honda’s Zero Emission Stationary Fuel Cell Provides Back Up Power to a Data Center, "The fuel cell unit has a capacity of approximately 500kW and reuses the fuel cell systems of previously leased Honda Clarity Fuel Cell vehicles, with a design that allows the output to increase every 250kW packaged with four fuel cells."
CES PEM fuel cell 3.20. 05 Mar 2023, Chemical Engineering Science, Designing graded fuel cell electrodes for proton exchange membrane fuel cells with recurrent neural network approaches, "Developed is a model to simultaneously investigate the cell performance and uniformity of current distribution of a PEMFC operated with graded Pt loading and GDL porosity."
ScienceDiirect PEM fuel cell 3.20. 24 Feb 2023, ScienceDirect, Green H2 based power generation prospect for sustainable development of Bangladesh using PEMFC and H2 gas turbine, "Studied were Green H2 production and power generation performances of 45 MW H2 gas turbine power plant and PEM fuel cell based 45 MW power plant and their related parametric analyses."

H2 SIM Storage 4.1. 21 Oct 2023, Nature, Simulation and optimization of the impacts of metal-organic frameworks on the hydrogen adsorption using computational fluid dynamics and artificial neural networks, "This study can be a step forward in improving the design of the hydrogen tanks, which will facilitate hydrogen storage at low pressures close to the ambient temperatures."
H2 Storage 4.2. 20 Oct 2023, MDPI, Thermodynamics of Reversible Hydrogen Storage: Are Methoxy-Substituted Biphenyls Better through Oxygen Functionality?, "Here, a series of methoxy-substituted biphenyls and structural parent compounds were studied & the absolute vapour pressures were measured using transpiration method & enthalpies of vaporisation/sublimation were determined"
H2 Car Storage 4.3. 19 Oct 2023, MDPI, Hydrogen Storage as a Key Energy Vector for Car Transportation: A Tutorial Review, "This study serves as a guide for anyone wanting to undertake such a technology and to equip the reader with an advanced knowledge on H2 storage and H2 storage in H2 cars to stimulate further researches and yet more innovative applications for this highly interesting field."
H2 Nozzle Storage 4.4. 29 Sep 2023, Nature, Assessment of the impact of shaped nozzles installed inside the pipeline on the energy efficiency of compressed gas systems, "In this study, we introduce an overview of recent progress in improving the hydrogen storage performance of MgH2 by the addition of titanium-based additives, which are one of the important groups of additives."
H2 Nozzle Storage 4.5. 05 Aug 2023, MDPI, Effect of Ti-Based Additives on the Hydrogen Storage Properties of MgH2: A Review, "In this study, we introduce an overview of recent progress in improving the hydrogen storage performance of MgH2 by the addition of titanium-based additives, which are one of the important groups of additives."
LH2 Storage 4.6. 19 Jul 2023, MDPI, The Effect of Liquid Hydrogen Tank Size on Self-Pressurization and Constant-Pressure Venting, "here the unsteady thermal modeling of cryogenic tanks with liquid hydrogen. Considering the liquid and vapor phases in the tank as two nodes with averaged properties, a lumped-element method of low computational cost is developed."
Forvia Type IV Storage 4.7. 13 Jun 2023, Forvia, FORVIA starts deliveries of hydrogen tanks from first mass production plant in France, "The Forvia plant will also produce the Hydrogen Type IV storage tanks that make up the Large-Scale Hydrogen Storage Solution which will be delivered to AirFlow for distribution and storage application."
MDPI HE Type IV Storage 4.8. 17 May 2023, MDPI, Preventing Hydrogen Embrittlement: The Role of Barrier Coatings for the Hydrogen Economy, "In this review, the state of the art with respect to hydrogen permeation is discussed for a variety of coatings. Al2O3, TiAlN and TiC appear to be the most promising candidates from a large pool of ceramic materials."
Luxfer LH2 Type IV Storage 4.9. 03 May 2023, Luxfer, Luxfer Gas Cylinders Introduces G-Stor Go H2 Hydrogen Cylinder with Type 4 Technology, "The G-Stor Go H2 features a proven boss-to-liner interface that results in minimal permeation and is a certified, cost-effective hydrogen storage solution ideal for fuel cell transit buses, heavy-duty trucks, vans, bulk gas transport, boats, and trains."
SwRI LH2 Storage 4.10. 03 Apr 2023, SwRI, SwRI EXPANDS HYDROGEN ENERGY RESEARCH CAPABILITIES WITH NEW LIQUID HYDROGEN STORAGE TANK, "The SwRI liquid hydrogen storage tank has a capacity of 17,000 gallons (64,345L) and will provide the Institute with a cost-effective, reliable supply of hydrogen for its multifaceted research initiatives."
WsRI LMRC 4.11. 28 Mar 2023, SwRI, SwRI CREATES INNOVATIVE, EFFICIENT HYDROGEN COMPRESSOR FOR FCEV REFUELING STATIONS, "LMRC coatings protect magnets from hydrogen incursion and embrittlement, while improved valve designs minimize leaks. It also utilizes a ceramic piston to minimize heat expansion and lower stress on its seal."
Type V Review 4.12. 15 Mar 2023, ScienceDiirect, A review of Type V composite pressure vessels and automated fibre placement based manufacturing, "This article provides a critical review of the existing work on both Type IV and Type V pressure vessels published from 2000 until present as well as the challenges facing Type V vessels."
Modeling of Liquid H2 Tank 4.13. 08 Feb 2023, MDPI, Modeling of Liquid Hydrogen Tank Cooled with Para-Orthohydrogen Conversion, Demonstrating a computational model that can be used for assessing this type of boil-off reduction. The model is of a hybrid type, having elements of a simplified reduced-order approach and high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics."
Howden 4.14. 25 Jan 2023, Howden: Howden, a company with over 100 years of experience in compression of H2, has developed a range of products to facilitate the re-fuelling of FCEV's "H2 is only exposed to the metal diaphragm that acts as a piston and is 100% leak free. The special design of the 'head' of the compressor makes very high pressure ratios possible in a single stage machine."
IPT 4.15. 25 Jan 2023, IPT: Hydrogen pressure vessels made from fiber-reinforced plastics: "Fraunhofer IPT automates systems and processes for processing glass and carbon fiber reinforced plastics using laser-assisted tape winding. Due to their mechanical properties, these materials are particularly suitable for the production of lightweight, stable and corrosion-resistant components."
MGH2 4.16. 13 Jan 2023, PHYS.ORG: Hydrogen storage material's key restriction identified: "Using calculations based on spin-polarized density functional theory with van der Waals corrections, researchers unearthed a "burst effect" during MgH2's dehydrogenation. The initial dehydrogenation barriers measured at 2.52 and 2.53 eV, whereas subsequent reaction barriers were 0.12–1.51 eV."
AMRC 4.17. 03 Jan 2023, DSM, DSM expands Akulon® Fuel Lock portfolio to offer more robust performance in type IV pressure vessels for H2 storage: "New grades—FLX40-HP and FLX-LP—for use as liner materials in Type IV pressure vessels for Hydrogen storage in its Akulon® Fuel Lock portfolio.”
PDC Machines 4.18. 13 Dec 2022, PDC, H2 Compressors for H2 Fueling Stations - Driving the H2 Energy Ecosystem "PDC diaphragm compressors are the preferred choice for high-purity and leak-tight gas compression applications. We design basic to fully instrumented leak-free, non-contaminating reciprocating diaphragm gas compressor systems in accordance with customer specifications.”
Doosan Type 4 H2 4.19. 22 Jun 2022, Doosan, Ultralight Type 4 Hydrogen tank with high storage efficiency "Type 4 Hydrogen tanks are based on verified technology already being used in Hydrogen-powered vehicles. Doosan developed ultralight H2 tanks by optimizing the design of carbon fiber winding in fuel cell powerpack for mobile use.”
AMRC 4.20. 01 Jun 2022, AMRC, Composite Hydrogen tank aims to decarbonise road transportation: "H2 storage tanks for transport applications being safe, affordable and lightweight H2 storage tanks.”

BMW iX5 5.1. 16 Oct 2023, Nature, Development of a mobile laboratory system in hydrogen fuel cell buses and evaluation of the performance for COVID-19 RT-PCR testing, "In this study, we evaluated the performance of a mobile laboratory system on HFC buses by focusing on reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for COVID-19."
BMW iX5 5.2. 14 Sep 2023, BMW, The BMW iX5 Hydrogen proves its suitability for everyday use even at high temperatures, "Despite harsh below-zero temperatures the development team based in Munich paid particular attention to the functionality of all electrical systems and the constant provision of cooling performance. The result: no vulnerabilities whatsoever."
First Hydrogen FCEV 5.3. 14 Aug 2023, First Hydrogen, FIRST HYDROGEN’S HYDROGEN-FUEL-CELL POWERED VEHICLE HAS AN UNBEATABLE RANGE, "These FCEV vehicles are being trialled with an initial 16 fleet operators in the United Kingdom. At the same time, the company has launched its bespoke vehicle design phase which will develop its fleet of proprietary zero-emission vehicles."
Pininfarina NamX HUV 5.4. 06 Jul 2023, Pininfarina, NamX - A futuristic SUV with solid performances, designed with style, "Collaboration between NAMX & PININFARINA, the design of the HUV is part of a large-scale industrial and technological project whose ambition is to reconcile human mobility and environmental preservation thanks to green hydrogen."
Toyota Crown FCEV 5.5. 13 Jun 2023, Toyota, Toyota unveils new technology that will change the future of cars, "In the area of electrification, we will continue to pursue a “multi-pathway approach,” including the introduction of optimal powertrains for each region. In the area of intelligence, we will also promote initiatives to expand our connection with society, such as Woven City."
Solaris Urbino 18 5.6. 16 May 2023, Tevva, 7.5T HYDROGEN ELECTRIC, FREEDOM FROM RANGE ANXIETY, "Highlights of the Tevva 7.5T H2 Electric truck: Customer availability in 2023; Range up to 435km; Body and payload allowance of 2718kg; Platform capacity: 16 Pallets (15 Euro Pallets); Battery charge 90%: 5 hours; Range extender; H2 refuelling time: 10 mins; and first deliveries: Summer 2023."
Toyota FCEV Truck 5.7. 09 May 2023, Toyota, Hydrogen fuel cell trucks to decarbonise Toyota logistics in Europe, "Fuel cell trucks also have a key role in the growth of the wider European hydrogen ecosystem, strongly supporting transport decarbonization and an ecological energy transition. Heavy-duty vehicles are critical in generating a healthy supply and demand dynamic for hydrogen."
Hyperion XP-1 5.8. 03 Apr 2023, Hyperion, XP-1 Hydrogen Electric Hypercar, "XP-1 HYPERCELL: Fuel Cell module includes high-efficiency fuel cell aerospace architecture utilizing membranes coated in an industry-best catalyst, capable of increasing engine life and H2 storage technology from NASA that stores more H2 in less space than ever before."
Solaris Urbino 18 5.9. 27 Mar 2023, Solaris, Solaris Urbino 18 hydrogen bus, "Urbino 18 Hydrogen bus is a cutting-edge fuel cell that acts as a miniature H2 power plant. H2 is transformed by the fuel cell into electricity which is then transferred to the driveline. Solaris’s new vehicle doesn’t feature a conventional engine compartment as it has been equipped with a modular drive system."
ARCC Hydrogen Bus 5.10. 03 Mar 2023, ARCC, ARCC Hydrogen bus, "ARCC H2 bus products & Services include RH drive EV/FCE chassis kit options (LH Drive option coming soon) plus EV and FCE conversion; Bus refurbishment; EV and FCE design and engineering support; Customisable bus design; H2 consultation; Infrastructure development planning; and 3rd party power supplier negotiation."
Ballard Fuel Cell Motors 5.11. 01 Mar 2023, Ballard, Ballard & First Mode sign order for 30 additional hydrogen fuel cells for diesel-free mining trucks, "The 30 Ballard hydrogen fuel cell modules will be integrated into clean energy powerplants built in Seattle, Washington and installed into ultra-class haul trucks to be operated at First Mode’s Proving Grounds in Centralia, Washington."
Cummins 5.12. 02 Feb 2023, Alstom Coradia iLint, Alstom’s Coradia iLint, the world’s first hydrogen-powered passenger train, will demonstrate green traction in Quebec, "Coradia iLint travelled the record distance of 1,175 kilometres without refuelling. Coradia iLint has a top speed of 140 km/h and acceleration and a braking performance comparable to a standard regional diesel train."
Nikola TWO FCEV Truck 5.13. 23 Jan 2023, Nikola, Nikola Tre hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles, "Nikola is globally transforming the transportation industry. As a designer and manufacturer of zero-emission battery-electric and hydrogen-electric vehicles, electric vehicle drivetrains, vehicle components, energy storage systems, and H2 station infrastructure."
JCB Hydrogen Engine 5.14. 11 Jan 2023, JCB, JCB: H2 World Firsts - Fuelling The Future Through Innovation, "JCB engineering team has done a fantastic job to develop a brand-new H2 engine. They have gone back to first principles to completely re-design the combustion process to work for hydrogen. JCB is the first construction equipment company to develop a fully working combustion engine fuelled by H2."
Toyota Corolla H2 5.15. 05 Dec 2022, Toyota, Prototype Corolla Cross Hydrogen Concept Highlights Toyota’s Multi-Path Approach To Zero, "By equipping the 1.6l 3-cylinder turbo engine from the GR Corolla with high-pressure hydrogen direct injection engine technology from motorsport activity and H2 tank from Mirai, Toyota was able to create a Corolla Cross H2 hydrogen prototype."
Wrightbus 5.16. 01 Nov 2022, Wrightbus, FCEV StreetDeck Hydroliner, "StreetDeck Hydroliner is equipped with a Hydrogen Fuel Cell power train and its battery pack can store up to 48KWh that allows the bus to travel up to 280 miles. It was designed to meet the demands of both bus drivers and passengers. The bus has been developed as part of the JIVE project funded by the European Union."
Hyundai Trailer Drone 5.17. 30 Sep 2022, Hyundai, Hyundai Trailer Drone, "Hyundai Trailer Drone is a hydrogen-powered container transportation system capable of operating fully autonomously. With the number of intelligently packaged hydrogen tanks tailored to the journey profile, the flexible and efficient Trailer Drone ensures more than 1,000 km of sufficient range from a single charge."
Quatron QHM H2X 5.18. 26 Sep 2022, Quantron, QHM FCEV, "The H2-electric QUANTRON QHM sets standards for heavy long-distance transport: a range of up to 700 km/1,500 km thanks to a H2 tank capacity of up to 56 kg/116 kg. The H2 tanks are fully integrated in the chassis, in addition, H2 consumption is optimized by a specially developed intelligent Q-ENERGY management system."
H2X Warrego 5.19. 19 Sep 2022, H2X, H2X Warrego, "Warrego features a 60-kW fuel cell connected to a hybrid battery/supercapacitor electric drive system. This is connected to a 700-bar type 4 hydrogen tank system constructed of an advanced polymer and Carbon Fibre base, which offers exceptional safety levels with very long standards of operation."
Hyundai N-Vision 74 5.20. 06 Sep 2022, H2X, Hyundati N Vision 74, "Hyundai N Vision 74, a high-performance, hydrogen hybrid vehicles over the past few years. In other words, the N Vision 74 is a high-performance hydrogen-electric hybrid vehicle that encompasses Hyundai's past, present, and future. N Vision 74 is the first high performance Rolling Lab built on the most advanced H2 fuel cell."

Heven drones 6.1. 27 Nov 2023, HevenDrones, Hydrogen-powered drones could fly longer, farther, "Heven Drones' H2D200 can carry up to 10lbs — twice what a typical electric drone of its size can carry & has a potential range of 317 miles, with up to four hours of flight time. The H2D250 can carry up to 22lbs and has a potential range of 466 miles, with up to eight hours of flight time."
Scramjet nozzles 6.2. 01 Nov 2023, Nature, Application of multi-extruded fuel injectors for mixing enhancement of hydrogen gas at scramjet engine: computational study, "The findings reveal that the use of extruded nozzles and inner air jet can significantly improve fuel mixing and distribution by enhancing the vortices between injectors."
Honeywell Aerospace 6.3. 15 Sep 2023, NREL, Honeywell Aerospace and NREL Partner To Scale Novel Hydrogen Fuel Storage Solution for Drones, "This prototype supports the commercialization of a novel cartridge-based hydrogen fuel storage solution for UAVs. The project, Fuel Additives for Solid Hydrogen (FLASH) Carriers in Electric Aviation, is a new hydrogen carrier technology."
H2FLY Germany LH2 6.4. 07 Sep 2023, H2FLY Germany, H2FLY And Partners Complete World’s First Piloted Flight of Liquid Hydrogen Powered Electric Aircraft, "The aircraft uses LH2 to power a H2-electric fuel cell system that powered the aircraft for the entire flight which lays the foundation for long-range flight with LH2 doubling the range to 1,500km compared to gaseous H2."
Aviation LH2 6.5. 23 Jun 2023, ACS, Liquid Hydrogen: A Mirage or Potent Solution for Aviation’s Climate Woes?, "In this study, we focus our investigation on which fuel supply chains and conversion technologies can lower the WTWa climate impact of commercial aircraft. We do not, however, analyze issues of cost or scalability."
Airbus 6.6. 20 Jun 2023, Airbus, At Airbus, hydrogen power gathers pace, "Airbus is also actively preparing a future H2C demonstrator with GE and Safran joint venture CFM International. The goal is to mature a flightworthy, fully integrated hydrogen engine and aircraft, using our own A380 test aircraft as a flying test bed."
H2FLY Germany 6.7. 22 May 2023, HyliumDRONE FLIES FOR FIVE HOURS WITH HYDROGEN FUEL CELL, "The drone uses a hydrogen fuel cell to provide electricity to run the drone’s motors and other electronic systems. Thanks to the energy density advantage of hydrogen versus lithium batteries, the flight time can be greatly extended compared to conventional battery-only drones."
GKN Germany 6.8. 21 Apr 2023, GKN, Liquid hydrogen-fueled UAS demonstrated, "GKN developed integrated fuel tank design and distribution solutions, including vaporizing and cryogenic conditioning of the liquid hydrogen. Fuel system performance was verified by coupling it with a PEM fuel cell stack, representative of the type that could be installed on a future zero-emission aircraft."
Plug Power UAV 6.9. 04 Apr 2023, Plug Power High Specific Energy Means More Time in the Air for a Fuel Cell UAV, "Hydrogen fuel cells for aerospace provide high specific energies (Wh/kg) for longer-duration flights and come with the added benefit of fast fueling, allowing customers to maximize the utilization of these assets and leading in Fuel Cell Solutions for aerospace."
Universal H2 6.10. 17 Mar 2023, Wingcopter/ZAL, Hydrogen power for delivery drones: Wingcopter and ZAL GmbH start joint development, "A solution is being developed that will fit into the existing technical ecosystem of the Wingcopter W198 delivery drone while preserving the characteristic flight capabilities of the Wingcopter."
Hylium  Industries 6.11. 16 Mar 2023, Hylium Industries, Hylium Industries develops creative technologies on compact hydrogen liquefaction and ultra light hydrogen storage through R&D programs, "Hylium Industries' HyliumX is a hydrogen fuel cell powered drone operating on liquefied hydrogen. The HyliumX has a flight endurance of up to five hours."
6.12. 09 Mar 2023, ISS Aerospace, High Endurance Hydrogen Fuel Cell UAVs, "ISS Aerospace has created a first-of-its-kind hydrogen fuel cell powered UAV, capable of up to 120 minutes flight time. Using ultra-light carbon composite fuel cylinders from AMS Composite Cylinders, Sensus is the first off-the-shelf UAV product of its kind."
Airbus 6.13. 04 Mar 2023, Airbus, The next frontier in alternative-propulsion technology, "At Airbus, we believe hydrogen is one of the most promising zero-emission technologies to reduce aviation’s climate impact. This is why we consider hydrogen to be an important technology pathway to achieve our ambition of bringing a zero-emission commercial aircraft to market by 2035."
6.14. 14 Feb 2023, MDPI, Preliminary Design and Simulation of a Thermal Management System with Integrated Secondary Power Generation Capability for a Mach 8 Aircraft Concept Exploiting Liquid Hydrogen, "This aircraft is conceived to carry 300 passengers over antipodal routes up to around 18,000 km, flying at an average altitude of 30–35 km at Mach 8."
Universal H2 6.15. 08 Feb 2023, Universal H2, Universal H2 Completes First Taxi Tests and Is Granted Experimental Airworthiness Certificate by the Federal Aviation Administration "The Dash 8-300 flying testbed has a megawatt-class H2 fuel cell powertrain installed in one of its nacelles. ATR 72-600 regional airliner is expected to be certified and in commercial passenger service starting in 2025."
ZeroAvia 6.16. 21 Jan 2023, ZeroAvia, The future of flight is renewable H2 H2-electric propulsion is the only way to scale sustainable aviation for commercial use. With up to 30 times higher specific energy and lower cycling costs than lithium-ion batteries, and numerous advantages over all other decarbonisation solutions, H2-electric powertrains are the only viable, scalable solution for zero-emission aviation."
H3 Dynamics 6.17. 17 Jan 2023, H3 Dynamics & Hylium, Progressing Liquid Hydrogen-Electric Flight Capabilities for Unmanned Aircraft "H3 Dynamics and Hylium Industries are combining strengths and capabilities to achieve a 3x flight duration improvement over pressurized H2 systems, a 10x performance improvement over batteries."
APUS 6.18. 08 Jan 2023, APUS, Aviation Engineering,"The greatest optimization potential of today’s aircraft lies in improving its propulsion system. With the great pressure to act to reduce emissions in aviation, the electrification of aircraft is becoming increasingly important. APUS has done pioneering work in this area in recent years and offers you the experience it has gained."
MDPI aviation 6.19. 05 Jan 2023, MDPI, Sustainable Aviation—Hydrogen Is the Future, "This paper traces the historical growth and future of the aviation and aerospace industry and examines how H2 can be used in the air and on the ground to lower the aviation industry’s impact on the environment, and while aircraft are an essential to the industry, other services add to the overall impact on the environment."
Rolls-Royce 6.20. 28 Nov 2022, Rolls-Royce, Hydrogen-powered flight "H2 can be a source of electrical power or used as a direct fuel for aircraft. The last 20-years have seen several demonstrator aircraft powered by H2 fuel cells. Our research shows that hydrogen fuel cells have the potential to be a substitute for electric batteries in power hybrid or all-electric small commuter aircraft. H2 Engine Test.

IC Army H2 7.1. 06 Sep 2023, Infinite Composites, INFINITE COMPOSITES SIGNS $1.6MUSD ARMY CONTRACT TO DEVELOP CONFORMABLE FUEL TANKS FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE "The DoD has created several initiatives to increase funding to develop new and improved hydrogen technologies for military vehicles including aircraft, ground support, and marine applications."
Saab Sabertooth AUV 7.2. 04 Sep 2023, Naval Technology, Recharge AUVs without a mothership: US trials hydrogen fuel cell "Saab AUV is being equipped with the Subsea Supercharger from Teledyne Energy Systems & the fuel cell uses technology to extend the AUV’s mission duration, and by reducing the requirement to reconnect with a surface vessel it also reduces the risk and the cost of operations."
H2 DHS Rescue Truck 7.3. 17 Aug 2023, US DHS, Feature Article: Using Hydrogen to Power Disaster Relief "The H2Rescue truck was built by Accelera by Cummins under a USACE ERDC-CERL cooperative agreement with funding and design assistance from S&T, the DoE, the Federal Emergency Management Agency, U.S. Army Ground Vehicle Power and Mobility, & USNRL."
H2 GM Defense 7.4. 27 Jun 2023, GM Defense, Hydrotech Fuel Cell Technology "The HYDROTEC Fuel Cell Power Cube (FCPC) is at the core of every GM fuel cell product. These power systems transform electrified systems into fuel cell technology at an accelerated rate. GM Defense can leverage FCPC to rapidly deploy fuel cell capabilities to enhance warfighter capability and support diverse mission use cases."
H2 Defence Hubs 7.5. 27 May 2023, ScienceDirect, Green energy hubs for the military that can also support the civilian mobility sector with green hydrogen "Coupling the civil sector with H2 storage in military renewable energy source (RES) hubs can facilitate a green transition of the civilian and military sectors by integrating RESs at lower cost."
India H2 Defence 7.6. 24 Mar 2023, Indian Aerospace and Defence Bulletin, Green H2 Energy: The Next Big Step For Indian Armed Forces "The Green H2 Mission recently announced by the state is poised to establish New Delhi as a hub for this eco-friendly fuel in India. This fuel will be produced entirely within India, eliminating the need for the country to rely on external sources for energy supply."
US DIU 7.7. 17 Mar 2023, Hypersonix, Australia's Hydrogen Powered Hypersonix Selected by US Defence Innovation Unit for Test Vehicle "Hypersonix DART AE (Additive Engineering) vehicle makes significant use of 3D-printing and is powered by a hydrogen-fuelled SPARTAN scramjet engine, capable of flying non-ballistic flight patterns at speeds of Mach 5 to Mach 7."
GM Defence ISV 7.8. 21 Feb 2023, GM Defence, Delivering the Future of Power on the Battlefield "HYDROTEC fuel cell power cube is designed to be easily integrated into a variety of vehicle platforms. HYDROTEC has been field tested with thousands of run hours and proven performance and underpinning technology of GM’s Mobile Power Generation System."
HevenDrones UAV H2D55 7.9. 14 Feb 2023, HevenDrones, HevenDrones launched its first hydrogen-powered drone for defence and commercial use, the H2D55 "With 5-times greater energy efficiency than Li battery drones, H2D55 is capable of flying for 100 min with 7kg. H2D55 is programmed with a control system that contains multiple gyroscopes & supporting algorithms to extend stable flight."
TKMS Fuel Cell XLUUV 7.10. 08 Feb 2023, NavalNews, World’s Largest Submarine Drone Being Built In Germany "German shipbuilder TKMS (Thyssenkrupp Marine Systems) is preparing to start construction of their MUM (Modifiable Underwater Mothership) underwater drone. The prototype will be powered by hydrogen fuel cell AIP (air independent power) propulsion and generate about 80 kW power."
Naval News H2 7.11. 05 Feb 2023, Infinity, Infinity Fuel Cell and Hydrogen, Inc., announces first commercial contract for its air-independent H2 fuel cell power system for use in unmanned underwater vehicles (UUV’s) "The primary advantage of H2 fuel cell power in larger UUVs is the ability to extend underwater time to weeks or even months."
Naval News H2 7.12. 18 Nov 2022, Naval Technology, Environmental sustainability innovation: Analysis of Leading companies in hydrogen fuel cells for the aerospace and defence industry, "Within the emerging innovation stage, hydrogen fuel cells, and fuel cells for aircraft are disruptive technologies that are in the early stages of application and should be tracked closely."
SFC 7.13. 31 Oct 2022, SFC Energy, Reliable fuel cell solutions, "Up to 80 % weight can be saved with SFC fuel cells. Therefore, soldiers can equip themselves with the minimum of batteries and extend the duration of the mission having saved the weight and volume."
EDA 7.14. 11 Oct 2022, European Defence Agency, Consultation forum explores hydrogen technologies for green defence, "The EDA organised its first CF SEDSS III thematic workshop on hydrogen in October 2022. The primary scope of the workshop was to explore the opportunities for decarbonising the defence sector using clean hydrogen and fuel cell technologies."
Bumhan UUV propulsion H2 fuel cell 7.15. 21 Sep 2022, Bumhan Technologies, Bumhan Showcases H2 Fuel Cells For South Korea’s ASWUUV "Development of anti-submarine warfare unmanned underwater vehicle (ASWUUV), for surveillance and reconnaissance around theater of operations where the manned vehicle cannot conduct." Bumhan fuel cell technology for prolonged underwater operations.
WSU LH2 UAS 7.16. 15 Sep 2022, WSU, University, industry collaboration allows liquid hydrogen-powered UAS to take flight "The use of LH2 fuel in Group 2 UAS has the potential to be a big deal for military applications. LH2 fuel, with electric propulsion, allows these size UAS to fly with almost no noise and fly more covert missions and get better intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance data."
Cellula Robotics XLUUV propulsion H2 fuel cell 7.17. 12 May 2022, Cellula Robotics XLUUV Cellula announces contract with Trusted Autonomous Systems, to develop the next generation of fuel cell powered, Extra-Large Unmanned Underwater Vehicle (XLUUV). Funded by the Royal Australian Navy and in collaboration with sovereign sub-contractors, project SeaWolf is set to debut the first 12m XLUUV hull in the fourth quarter of 2022.
USN Skydweller 7.18. 07 May 2022, Wondeful Engineering, This New Solar-Powered Autonomous Aircraft Can Stay Airborne For 90 Days Straight "The photovoltaic cells that cover the plane’s surface will generate electricity and keep it airborne. The aircraft will also be equipped with hydrogen fuel cells as a backup if it pours for several days in a row."
German Type 212 / 214 Submarines 7.19. 23 Aug 2021, German Type 212 / 214 submarines "The Type 212’s double hull displaces 1,800 tons submerged, and is made of nonmagnetic materials so that it is not suceptible to detection by magnetic anomaly detectors. The Type 212’s fuel cells, with hydrogen fuel stored in between the outer and inner pressure hulls, allow it to sail underwater for three weeks before surfacing."
thyssenkrupp air-independent propulsion H2 fuel cell 7.20. 2022, Thyssenkrupp Marine Systems Submarine Air-Independent Propulsion (AIP) HDW fuel cell system delivers a unique AIP solution for direct integration into non-nuclear submarines. Fuel cells are energy converters that transform chemical energy directly to electrical energy without noise or combustion.

Yanmar Maritime H2 8.1. 09 Nov 2023, Yanmar Power Technology Co., Ltd, Yanmar Makes First Delivery of Maritime Hydrogen Fuel Cell System to Hybrid Passenger Ship "When running solely on the hydrogen fuel cell system and batteries, the ship creates zero emissions, with notable reductions in power source vibrations and noise, and the elimination of exhaust gas odors."
ABB Maritime H2 8.2. 21 Sep 2023, ABB, ABB to power Samskip’s new hydrogen-fueled container vessels "Hydrogen fuel cell technology is considered as one of the most promising solutions to support shipping industry’s decarbonization agenda, with the potential to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase energy efficiency."
H2C RIB H2 8.3. 13 Sep 2023, RINA, HYDROGEN PROPULSION EASY AS H2C FOR DUTCH RIB "Students conducted a feasibility study, leading to the development of a proof-of-concept demo RIB, equipped with hydrogen, a fuel cell, a battery and an electric motor. This powertrain was then tested in a sloop. A further prototype was developed, which later underwent testing in the Port of Den Helder."
DNV LH2 8.4. 06 Sep 2023, HC-DNV, Moss Maritime Reaches Important Milestone – Approval In Principle For LH2, Liquified Hydrogen, Carrier Containment System From DNV "Moss Maritime has been granted an Approval in Principle from the classification society DNV for a containment system for ship transport of LH2 & ship transport of liquefied hydrogen."
H2 CAS 8.5. 10 Jul 2023, IEEE, Intelligent Dynamic Collision Avoidance Strategy of H2 Fuel Cell Unmanned Ship via Improved Fusion Dynamic Window Method "The safety field obstacle model of obstacle ships is explored to improve the obstacle collection of speed obstacle method, so that the collision avoidance process of H2 Fuel Cell Unmanned Ship can retain more feasible paths."
SWITCH Maritime H2 8.6. 26 Jun 2023, SWITCH Maritime, SWITCH Maritime is building the first fleet of zero-emissions vessels in North America "SWITCH’s flagship zero-emissions vessel, the Sea Change, is a 75-passenger ferry powered by H2 fuel cells and batteries. The vessel is substantially complete, entering operational sea trials at All American Marine shipyard in Bellingham, WA."
MDPI Marine H2 8.7. 19 Jun 2023, MDPI, A power allocation strategy for fuel cell ship considering fuel cell performance difference "In response to the deficiencies of the previous studies, a two-layer control-based power allocation strategy is proposed in this paper, which takes into account the performance differences among fuel cells."
Corvus Energy Marine Fuel Cell 8.8. 08 Jun 2023, Corvus Energy, Corvus Energy Pelican Fuel Cell System "The Corvus Pelican Fuel Cell System (FCS) combines well-proven fuel cell technology from world leader, Toyota, with an inherently gas safe design, making it one of the safest and most advanced marine fuel cell systems ever developed."
Ballard Maritime H2 8.9. 31 May 2023, Ballard, PoweredByBallard: The first hydrogen-powered vessels set sail "Powered by Ballard’s fuel cell modules, the first vessels to embark on their maiden voyages were Norled’s MF Hydra - the world’s first liquid hydrogen-powered ferry - operating in Norway; FPS Waal, a retrofitted cargo vessel expected in service on the Rhine River in Holland later 2023."
Norway Norled H2 8.10. 05 Apr 2023, Norled H2, Norled H2 ferry sails into operation, completing world-first achievement "Linde Engineering in Germany has supplied the hydrogen systems on board. Danish Ballard has developed the fuel cells that produce electricity from H2. Placing the hydrogen tank high up was the best alternative, both for safety and practical bunkering reasons."
ACUA Ocean Hylium 8.11. 04 Apr 2023, ACUA Ocean / Hylium, Ocean monitoring and protection - hydrogen powered H-USV "The hydrogen powered ACUA Ocean MASS is designed to last up to 40-60 days offshore at 4 knots, and with our 24/7 monitoring and operating system we can vastly reduce the turnaround time on crew change and equipment maintenance."
RH2IWER Finland 8.12. 23 Mar 2023, Horizon Europe, Renewable Hydrogen for Inland Waterway Emission Reduction "The main aim of RH2IWER is to create a solid basis for the acceleration of hydrogen fuel cell powered vessels in inland waterway shipping by demonstrating six commercially operated vessels."
OceanWorld IMOCA yacht 8.13. 03 Mar 2023, OceanWorld, CLEANTECH ACCELERATOR Developing the world’s first green hydrogen race yacht to compete in transatlantic and around the world ocean races with zero emissions "A new partnership agreed with the Government of Jersey following the announcement of the world’s first hydrogen IMOCA yacht construction in January."
PowerCell Norway Ferry 8.14. 03 Mar 2023, PowerCell, PowerCell signs agreement for deliveries to Norwegian state ferries valued at EUR 19.2 million "PowerCell will deliver its Marine System 200, which enables the ferries to produce approximately 13 MW of power in total. The ferries are powered by green hydrogen and reduce CO2 emissions by 26,500 tonnes per year.."
TECO 2030 8.15. 17 Feb 2023, MDPI, Hybrid PEM Fuel Cell Power Plants Fuelled by Hydrogen for Improving Sustainability in Shipping: State of the Art and Review on Active Projects "Presented is an extensive review on maritime hydrogen PEMFCs, outlining the state of the art and future trends for hydrogen storage and bunkering, powertrain, and regulations."
TECO 2030 8.16. 10 Feb 2023 TECO 2030 Marine Fuel Cell "TECO Marine Fuel Cell System 400 kW PEM Module is specifically for heavy duty marine application includes Dynamic response time like a large diesel engine; has modular design, enabling system configuration in megawatt scale and is based on 20 years of Fuel Cell development experience by AVL."
Designboom Lazzarini Plectrum 8.17. 30 Jan 2023, designboom, Pierpaolo Lazzarini envisions 'flying' superyacht (Plectrum) powered by hydrogen "The ‘Plectrum’ moves and lifts itself above the water surface before speeding off into the distance at up to 75 knots. The superyacht runs on three hydrogen-powered motors (fuel cells), 5000hp each (15,000 hp in total)."
INOCEL 8.18. 30 Nov 2022 INOCEL 300kW "The INOCEL fuel cell technology is a module of 300 kW and allows parallelization of the module in addition to the software adapted, to reach from 300 kW up to 3 MW. Modules show reduced hydrogen flow, therefore less consumption & high efficiency of 60% and response time of 1.5 seconds.".
Emirates Team New Zealand 8.19. Emirates Team New Zealand have been continuing the successful commissioning and testing of their hydrogen powered foiling chase boat ‘Chase Zero’ on Auckland’s Hauraki Gulf since its launch just five weeks ago. The top speed of Chase Zero to date has been clocked at 50.3 knots (93.16km/h) on its 9th day of testing, which has always been the expectation of the design of the foiling boat.
Yanmar Marine 8.20. Yanmar developed a maritime hydrogen fuel cell system and conducted verification tests with a test boat by utilizing components of Toyota Motor Corporation's fuel cell vehicle "MIRAI". Engineers in hull design, electrical design, and control design from various departments within the Yanmar Group participated in the development of this test boat.

Toyota Lunar Rover H2 Fuel Cell 9.1. 21 July 2023, Toyota, Development Status Toyota's Manned Pressurized Rover and MHI's LUPEX Rover "Toyota Fuel cell technology cultivated through long years of vehicle development and technologies developed for the moon, fed back to Earth used to create better vehicles and develop technologies for sustainable society with Lunar Cruiser developed by Toyota."
Moon Mars H2 9.2. 06 June 2023, Nature, Assessment of the technological viability of photoelectrochemical devices for oxygen and fuel production on Moon and Mars "Present is a refined Martian solar irradiance spectrum and establish the thermodynamic and realistic efficiency limits of solar-driven lunar water-splitting and Martian carbon dioxide reduction (CO2R) devices."
Destinus 9.3. 27 Mar 2023, Destinus, Destinus Receives 12M Grant for H2 Flight "Destinus, a European aerospace firm specializing in high-speed H2 powered airplanes, has been chosen by the Spanish Ministry of Science’s Centro para el Desarrollo Tecnológico e Industrial program to participate in a strategic initiative to further R&D for supersonic flight utilizing H2 as fuel."
Lunar H2O 9.4. 27 Mar 2023, Nature, A solar wind-derived H2O reservoir on the Moon hosted by impact glass beads "A report on the abundance, H2 isotope composition and core-to-rim variations of H2O measured in impact glass beads from lunar soils via Chang’e-5. The impact glass beads preserve hydration signatures & display H2O consistent with inward diffusion of solar wind-derived H2O."
IJER 9.5. 21 Feb 2023, IJER, Liquid Cooling Flow Field Design and Thermal Analysis of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells for Space Applications "This study examined PEM fuel cell elements and cooling flow channel design for space applications. The effect of the designed flow channel on the PEM fuel cell temperature distribution was investigated. "
JAXA Honda 9.6. 19 Jan 2023, JAXA Honda, Honda Signs Research and Development Contract with JAXA Regarding Circulative Renewable Energy System Designed to Supply Electricity Supporting Living Space for People During Lunar Surface Exploration "The circulative renewable energy system combines Honda’s original high differential pressure water electrolysis system & fuel cell."
Anasphere 9.7. 01 Jan 2023, Anasphere, Hydrogen Generation for Space, "Anasphere has been developing solid-state H2 gas generators since 2011 and produce dry H2 gas at a rapid & controlled rate. The primary space-related application for these generators is the inflation of Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Deceleratorss."
FORTUNE 9.8. 06 Dec 2022, FORTUNE, Space travel is heating up—and so are rocket fuel emissions, "NASA’s Artemis I launch is the first in a series of missions to enable human exploration of the moon and Mars. The mission successfully utilized H2 to produce enough energy to power four engines with 2 million pounds of thrust. The other main by-product was water vapor."
History H2 as fuel 9.9. 18 Oct 2022, Hydrogen Fuel News, The history of hydrogen fuel has a fascinating connection with space programs"The aerospace industry has long known that there is considerable potential in using H2 as an energy source. When President J.F.Kennedy announced in 1962 that the US would land on the moon within the decade, he changed the path of the history of H2 fuel."
Infinity 9.10. 27 Sep 2022, Infinity Fuel Cell and Hydrogen, Inc. "Infinity announced that their Advanced Modular Power and Energy System (AMPES) operated successfully aboard Blue Origin’s New Shepard 23 flight Sep 12, "The AMPES system is a scalable modular system that could be used to power landers, rovers, surface equipment and habitats on the moon or Mars."
MT  Aerospace 9.11. 04 Jul 2022, MT Aerospace, MT have provided proof that a high-performance pressure tank made of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) can withstand cryogenic stress (H2 or O2), "In the future, the use of CFRP high-performance tanks enables safe rocket launches."
ESA H2 9.11. 28 Jun 2022, ESA, Launch goes green with Spaceport hydrogen plan “This is a good step for greening Europe's spaceport. The number of launches is growing rapidly, so now is the right time to invest. A green hydrogen system will support environmental sustainability, stabilise costs and protect Spaceport operations from energy supply disruption."
NASA H2 9.12. 29 Mar 2022 - NASA: H2 and Fuel Cell Perspectives "Background of NASA H2 activities technologies for Aerospace applications / Reactant generation / Environmental Control & Life Support / In Situ Resource Utilization / Energy Storage / H2 Economy / Reactant Transfer & Storage / Cis-lunar propellant infrastructure / Power Generation / Energy Storage"
ABB Toyota JAXA 9.13. 23 Apr 2020 - ABB: Hydrogen fuel cells: driving sustainable mobility on the Moon and beyond "Total driving time on the initial mission is expected to total more than 10,000Km (6,213m). The rover needs to locate & study interesting scientific targets. Toyota’s next-generation fuel cell will enable the rover to travel up to 1,000 kilometers on one tank of H2."
History H2 as fuel 9.14. 30 Apr 2019 - US DOE: NASA Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Activities"Integrated Regenerative Fuel Cells (RFCs) for Lunar Exploration address high energy storage requirements where nuclear power may not be an option (in locations near humans)". Regenerative process - recovered H2O resulting H2 and O2; and Hydrogen Reduction for material processing."
H2 Solar Micro Gravity 9.15. 10 Jul 2018 - Nature Communications: Efficient Solar Hydrogen generation in microgravity environment "Describing the development of an efficiently operating semiconductor–electrocatalyst half-cell in microgravity environment. Experimental conditions are described which are required for investigating photoelectrochemical hydrogen production in reduced gravitational environments".
History H2 as fuel 9.16. 23 May 2017 - E3SConf: Use of Fuel Cells And Electrolysers In Space Applications: From Energy Storage To Propulsion / Deorbitation"The aerospace industry has long known that there is considerable potential in using H2 as an energy source. It was space programs that were the most heavily invested in it for the majority of that time, as aircraft and airports focused on jet fuel"

H2 Fe Process 10.1. 02 Oct 2023, Nature, How much hydrogen is in green steel? "Here two key questions that need to be answered before implementing hydrogen as a reductant at the industrial scale for green steel production: (1) How much hydrogen is in green steel? (2) Will green steel suffer from severe hydrogen embrittlement?"
H2 Fe Process 10.2. 29 Sep 2023, Metso-Aurubis, Aurubis AG and Metso working on the decarbonization of Hamburg copper smelter "Metso’s technology, consisting of complete hydrogen-ready Outotec Anode Furnaces with hoods and auxiliary equipment used in the anode refining process with with Aurubis as a key in designing the H2-ready furnace by Metso, a first in the copper industry."
H2 LPSO Process 10.3. 10 Sep 2023, MDPI, Design of LPSO Phases in Mg-Y-Ni Alloys to Impact Hydrogenation Kinetics "This work demonstrated LPSO structures decompose into Mg phase, Mg2Ni phase, lamellar Mg/Mg-Y structures, and YHx particles and shows H2 kinetics can be impacted in Mg-Y-Ni alloys by controlling the LPSO phases using common metallurgical techniques."
H2 Fe Ore Process 10.4. 09 Sep 2023, ACS, Heat Transfer Conditions in Hydrogen-Fired Rotary Kilns for Iron Ore Processing "This work aims to map operational regimes relevant to H2-fired rotary kiln based on the heat transfer conditions, including the influence of flame length and presence of char particles. Compared to the conditions in an industrial case of iron ore pelletizing, applying a coal flame."
H2 LPSO Process 10.5. 30 Aug 2023, MDPI, Hydrogen-Based Direct Reduction of Iron Oxides: A Review on the Influence of Impurities "Here the advantages and challenges of using H2 as the reductant are examined, and an overview of important projects in this area is introduced & critical review of the kinetics of Fe reduction with impact of various gangue materials on reduction."
H2 Hydro Al Process 10.6. 15 Jun 2023, Hydro, World’s first batch of recycled aluminium using hydrogen fueled production "Green H2 can remove hard to abate emissions from fossil fuels, in processes where electricity is not an alternative, both in the aluminium industry and in other heavy industries, The results from this test can also be relevant for using H2 in primary aluminium casthouses."
H2 Al Process 10.7. 20 May 2023, MDPI, LCA Analysis Decarbonisation Potential of Aluminium Primary Production by Applying Hydrogen and CCUS Technologies "The results show that green H2 replacing NG is the most environmentally beneficial option, accounting for a 10.76% reduction in Global Warming Potential and 1.26% in Photochemical Ozone Formation."
H2 Steel Australia 10.8. 18 May 2023, ScienceDirect, Green steel: Synergies between the Australian iron ore industry and the production of green hydrogen "Study highlights opportunities / challenges facing Australian steel industry in contributing to decarbonization globally, underscoring the role of government in driving growth & development of a green steel industry."
H2 DRi EAF Steel Process 10.9. 04 May 2023, Nature, Global green hydrogen-based steel opportunities surrounding high quality renewable energy and iron ore deposits "In this study, we provide a baseline assessment of the global potential of renewables-powered steel production using green H2-DRI-EAF technology, where the entire supply chain is co-located at the iron ore mine vicinities."
NH3 Steel Process 10.10. 30 Mar 2023, Advanced Science, Reducing Iron Oxide with NH3: A Sustainable Path to Green Steel "Demonstrated is how to make sustainable steel by reducing solid iron oxides with H2 released from NH3. NH3 is an annually 180 million ton traded chemical energy carrier, with established transcontinental logistics and low liquefaction costs."
HPSR Steel H2 10.11. 17 Feb 2023, Journal of Cleaner Production, Decarbonisation and hydrogen integration of steel industries: Recent development, challenges and technoeconomic analysis "This review reports the major technologies, recent developments, challenges and technoeconomic comparison of steelmaking technologies, emphasising integration of H2 in ironmaking/steelmaking processeses."
Nippon Steel H2 10.12. 09 Feb 2023, Nippon Steel, Nippon Steel Decided to Start Demonstration of H2 Reduction in a Large-scale Actual Blast Furnace —Facility for demonstrating the hydrogen-rich gas injection technique to be installed in No. 2 blast furnace of East Nippon Works Kimitsu Area "A Green Innovation Fund project under New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Org."
MDPI 10.13. 27 Jan 2023, MDPI "Multi-Model Assessment for Secondary Smelting Decarbonisation: The Role of Hydrogen in the Clean Energy Transition: "A comparative analysis of the environmental impact of different thermal energy sources, namely natural gas, light fuel oil, liquified petroleum gas, hydrogen and electricity, for a secondary aluminium smelter is presented."
SSAB HYBRIT technology 10.14. 2023, SSAB HYBRIT technology "With HYBRIT technology, SSAB aims to be the first steel company in the world to bring fossil-free steel to the market already in 2026 and largely eliminate CO2 emissions from our own operations in around 2030. Together with our partners and customers, SSAB aims to create a fossil-free value chain, from the mine to the end-product."
Blastr Green Steel Project 10.15. 2023, Blastr Green Steel Project "Through our pre-feasibility studies, we have planned for a new, large and green industrial adventure, with priority to locate a pellet plant on the Norwegian Atlantic coast, and a steel plant on an industrial site in Finland. The plan entails the production of 2.5 million tons of high-quality steel on coils per year, mainly based on Nordic iron ore concentrates."
H2 Green Steel 10.16. 2023, H2 Green Steel "Our DR reactor refines iron ore to direct-reduced iron (DRI). This is done by exposing iron ore to H2, which reacts with the oxygen in the ore to form steam as a residual. Using our green hydrogen produced in our electrolysis for reduction instead of coal. The majority of DRI is transported in the hot state inside the plant to the Electric Arc Furnace."
MDPI 10.17. 09 Feb 2020, Decarbonization of the Iron and Steel Industry with Direct Reduction of Iron Ore with Green Hydrogen "Hydrogen as reducing agent reduces emissions from iron and steel production substantially. Mass and energy flow model shows H2 direct reduction of iron ore coupled with electric arc furnace for carbon-free steel production."

Australian National University 11.1. AU - Australian National University (ANU) Publications on aspects of the Hydrogen economy transition.
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation 11.2. AU - Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) Publications from CSIRO on Hydrogen Fuel Cell research and development of renewable energy solutions.
Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology 11.3. AU - Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT) Publications from the RMIT Sustainable Hydrogen Energy Laboratory (SHEL) that pioneers research and development on hydrogen energy solutions.
University of NSW Hydrogen Energy Research Centre 11.4. AU - University of NSW Hydrogen Energy Research Centre (HERC) Publications from a world-first centre for hydrogen energy innovation, focusing on devising practical solutions to enable the hydrogen economy.
MDPO 11.5. CH - MDPI Hydrogen Journal MDPI has supported academic communities since 1996. Based in Basel, Switzerland, MDPI has the mission to foster open scientific exchange in all forms, across all disciplines.
SciOpen 11.6. CN - SciOpen SciOpen is a professional open access resource for discovery of scientific and technical content published by the Tsinghua University Press, its publishing partners, providing the scholarly publishing community with innovative technology and market-leading capabilities.
Hydrogen Tech World 11.7. DE - Hydrogen Tech World Publications including an interesting mix of company profiles, in-depth technical articles, reports from major end users and projects in the hydrogen production industries.
Hydrogen Europe Research 11.8. EU - Hydrogen Europe Research Publications from the European scientific community involved in the development of a new, industrial ecosystem based on hydrogen and committed to moving towards a circular, carbon-neutral economy.
H2Ships Europe Research 11.9. EU - Interreg: North-West Europe H2SHIPS Research Hydrogen in shipping; H2SHIPS Projects and a place with technical materials relating to hydrogen and fuel cells in shipping. The site is also a portal for sharing the H2SHIPS Project outputs.
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 11.10. INT - International Journal of Hydrogen Energy A central vehicle for the exchange and dissemination of new ideas, technology developments and research results in the field of Hydrogen Energy between scientists and engineers throughout the world.
Advanced Industrial, Science and Technology, Fukushima Renewable Energy Institute, Hydrogen Energy Carrier Team 11.11. JP - Advanced Industrial, Science and Technology, Fukushima Renewable Energy Institute, Hydrogen Energy Carrier Team Developing technologies for storing and utilizing large amounts of renewable energy that will help solve several energy issues facing Japan.
Korea Institute of Energy Research 11.12. KR - Korea Institute of Energy Research Future Energy Research Division conducts researches on H2 generation, storage, transportation, and utilization to realize a future energy society, focusing on the development of fuel cell technologies represented by generation, storage, and use of H2, an eco-friendly source of energy with economic benefits obtained by coal fuels and water.
Journal of Green Technologies and Sustainability 11.13. NL - ScienceDirect Journal of Green Technologies and Sustainability This Journal encourages and promotes interdisciplinary research and development to important technological and theoretical developments in greentech and sustainability issues.
PO 11.14. UK - Science X / PHYS.ORG Search "hydrogen + energy" => Daily science news on research developments, technological breakthroughs and the latest scientific innovations.
PO 11.15. UK - University of Birmingham The Birmingham Centre for Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Research focuses on research and development, applications and demonstrations of fuel cell and hydrogen systems and technologies.
ACS 11.16. US - American Chemical Society (ACS) ACS Publications’ commitment to publishing high-quality content continues to attract impactful research that addresses the world’s most important challenges.
IEEE 11.17. US - IEEE IEEE is the world’s largest technical professional organization dedicated to advancing technology for the benefit of humanity.
Mendeley 11.18. US - Search "hydrogen + energy" => Year/Document Type/Journal/Author/Access Type/Most relevant/Most recent/Most cited science articles on research developments, technological breakthroughs and the latest scientific innovations.
nauture 11.19. US - Search "hydrogen + energy" for wide variety of journal articles on researched developments, technological breakthroughs and latest innovations.
National Renewable Energy Laboratory 11.20. US - National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) NREL's research accelerates development, integration, and scale up of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies to enable widespread deployment across multiple energy sectors.
Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy 11.21. US - Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Technical information about hydrogen published in technical reports, conference proceedings, journal articles, and websites is provided, across categories: General, Production, Delivery, and Storage.
Pennsylvania State University 11.22. US - Pennsylvania State University, H2E Center Researchers at Penn State are active in a variety of topics in hydrogen production, storage, and use in fuel cells and for other applications.
Proceedings of the National Academv of Sciences 11.23. US - Proceedings of the National Academv of Sciences, PNAS PNAS is one of the world's most-cited and comprehensive multidisciplinary scientific journals, publishing more than 3,500 research papers annually.
University of Michigan 11.24. US - University of Michigan - MI Hydrogen A joint venture by the Office of the Vice President for Research, Michigan Engineering and the School for Environment and Sustainability.
University of South Carolina 11.25. US - University of South Carolina College of Engineering and Computing Publications includes a number of specific areas of Hydrogen and Fuel Cells research related to fundamental knowledge, technical applications, and integrated systems.
Southwest Research Institute 11.26. US - Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) SwRI develops applied R&D solutions with hydrogen technology used in rockets, alternative combustion, fuel cells, energy storage, and industrial processing plants.
University of Texas 11.27. US - University of Texas (UT) Feautured publications and White Papers on Blue Hydrogen, Green H2 economy, H2 infrastructure, and achieving NET ZERO by 2050.

12.1 MDPI 09 Nov 2023: "Cost Projection of Global Green Hydrogen Production Scenarios"
12.2 IEEE 07 Nov 2023: "Price-Guided Cooperation of Combined Offshore Wind and Hydrogen Plant, Hydrogen Pipeline Network, Power Network, and Transportation Network"
12.3 NASA 05 Sep 2023: "Natural Hydrogen: Circular Depressions Seep Hydrogen Gas"
12.4 GOV.UK 01 Aug 2023: "Hydrogen Strategy: Update to the market, August 2023"
12.5 Blomberg 13 Jul 2023: "Hydrogen Market to Reach $292 Billion, Globally, by 2032 at 6.5% CAGR: Allied Market Research"
12.6 The Economist, 03 Jul 2023: "Business | The long hydrogen sunrise: Can a viable industry emerge from the hydrogen shakeout?"
12.7 Deloitte, 13 Jun 2023: "New Deloitte report: Emerging green hydrogen market set to help reshape global energy map by end of decade, creating US$1.4 trillion market by 2050"
12.8 The Economist, 16 May 2023: "Britain - Green with envy; The Inflation Reduction Act is turning heads among British businesses"
12.9 Boston Consulting Group, 21 Mar 2023: "Building the Green Hydrogen Economy - Infrastructure Strategy 2023"
12.10 World Economic Forum, 16 Mar 2023: "Why we can't ignore green hydrogen in the clean energy mix"
12.11 WSJ, 13 Feb 2023: "Europe Sets Rules for Producing Green Hydrogen"
12.12 Finnish Government, 09 Feb 2023: "Government adopts resolution on hydrogen – Finland could produce 10% of EU’s green hydrogen in 2030"
12.13 Global Data, 07 Feb 2023: "Hydrogen market growth to surge in 2023 despite slowing global economy, says GlobalData"
12.14 USA Department of Energy, 27 Jan 2023: "DOE Announces 750 MUSD to Accelerate Clean Hydrogen Technologies"
12.15 EY, 16 Jan 2023: "The Inflation Reduction Act – a turning point for the global green hydrogen market"
12.16 World Economic Forum, 12 Jan 2023: "Everything you need to know about hydrogen in the clean energy transition"
12.17 CSIS, 12 Jan 2023: "The Defense Production Act and the U.S. Race to Build Up Clean Energy Industrial Bases"
12.18 EPO, 10 Jan 2023: "Hydrogen patents shift towards clean technologies with Europe and Japan in the lead"
12.19 NASDAQ, 28 Dec 2022: "Hydrogen Fuel Gives Rise to an $11 Trillion Revolution"$11-trillion-revolution
12.20 Hydrogen market significant companies (by Alpha-2):
01. Ballard Power Systems (CA) -
02. Cummins Incorporated / Hydrogenics Corporation (CA) -
03. JOUAV Hydrogen Cell UAS (CN) -
04. Pearl Hydrogen (CN) -
05. Linde plc (DE US) -
06. Air Liquide (FR) -
07. McPhy. (FR) -
08. Panasonic Corporation (JP) -
09. Nedstack fuel cell technology BV. (NL) -
10. Horizon Fuel Cell Technologies (SG) -
11. Intelligent Energy Holdings plc (UK) -
12. Air Products and Chemicals, Inc (US) -
13. Doosan (HyAxiom) Fuel Cell (US) -
14. FuelCell Energy, Inc. (US) -
15. Hyster-Yale Group (US) / Nuvera Fuel Cells -
16. Messer Group (US) -
17. Parker Hannifin. (US) -
18. Plug Power Inc. (US) -

2H2O(l) ↔ 2H2(g) + O2(g) E0 = -1.229V

Hydrogen: 1.00784 u; Oxygen: 15.999 u

111.891g H2(g) + 888.109g O2(g) ↔ 1000g H2O(l)